Effects of Chronic Stress on Hypocalcaemic Tetany

Authors

  • Sairam Ravi Student, Year 12, GEMS Jumeirah College, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Keywords:

Tetany, Chronic stress, Hypocalcaemia, Hypomagnesaemia, Hyperphosphataemia, Vitamin D deficiency

Abstract

This article is written with the aim of integrating the role of chronic stress, along with its effects on neuroendocrinal physiology, on the pathogenesis of tetany. This encompasses the different underlying mechanisms of development, e.g., hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, hyperphosphataemia (i.e., electrolyte disorders), improper endocrine function as well as a brief analysis of corresponding aetiologies. This paper discusses the effects of psychological stress in the long term, i.e., chronic stress, which has been known to contribute to the development of a variety of medical conditions in the human body. The study has suggested, apart from correlations, indirect causal mechanisms between chronic stress and the rate of development of a disease. The findings made show that in multiple cases, chronic stress can contribute to the processes of a condition’s pathogenesis, being an accelerating factor in its development. However, the review of scientific literature available only indicates an aggravation of tetanic physiology in the presence of chronic stress, as opposed to the latter being a primary aetiological factor. The involuntary contractions and spasms seen collectively in tetany are primarily associated with underlying electrolytic imbalances or vitamin disorders (including calcium, magnesium and Vitamin D deficiencies), the pathophysiology of which will be discussed in further depth in this review paper. However, these disorders may themselves be accelerated during development by chronic stress, which consists of neurological cortisol mechanisms that can influence the action potential frequencies of neurons and muscle cells. Analyzed further are the spasms caused by the under function of endocrine glands, namely the parathyroid glands, which are also linked to regulation of calcium and phosphate levels – this, in turn, can be affected as a part of neurological changes that may be aided by chronic stress. Therefore, the neurological aspects of improper electrolyte-PTH interplay, which may contribute to the development of tetanic seizures, is discussed. The methodology utilized in this review paper includes the anatomization of multiple research papers in the field and medical case studies from verified sources – specific information from these studies may be presented in the form of images/labelled diagrams or tables for further analysis and understanding.

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Published

27-07-2022

How to Cite

[1]
S. Ravi, “Effects of Chronic Stress on Hypocalcaemic Tetany”, IJRESM, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 95–102, Jul. 2022.

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Section

Articles